जमा बीमा (deposit insurance) क्या होती है?
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  • जमा बीमा में ग्राहक द्वारा जमा की गई धनराशि पर बीमा का प्रावधान होता है और इसके लिए कुछ प्रीमियम लिया जाता है.
  • किसी बैंक के डूब जाने पर ग्राहकों के द्वारा जमा राशि को सुरक्षित करने के लिए सरकार ने भारतीय रिज़र्व बैंक के अधीन एक निगम की स्थापना की है जिसका नाम जमा बीमा एवं ऋण प्रतिभूति निगम (Deposit Insurance and Credit Guarantee Corporation – DICGC) है.
  • जमा बीमा होने पर बैंक प्रत्येक वर्ष जमा राशि के 001% अंश की समतुल्य राशि DICGC को भुगतान करेगा.

बैंक के डूबने पर जमाकर्ताओं की धनराशि का क्या होगा?

  • जब कोई बैंक डूबता है तो जमाकर्ताओं को अधिकार है कि वे DICGC से प्रति व्यक्ति एक लाख रु. का बीमा प्राप्त कर सकते हैं.
  • इस एक लाख रु. की बीमा राशि में मूल और ब्याज दोनों शामिल होंगे.
  • किसी जमाकर्ता के द्वारा बैंक के विविध खातों, जैसे – बचत, चालू, सावधि, आवर्ति खाते, में जमा मूल राशि और उस पर मिलने वाला ब्याज दोनों एक लाख रु. की बीमा की सीमा के अन्दर होगा.

डूबे हुए बैंक से जमाकर्ता अपनी धनराशि का दावा का कैसे करते हैं?

  • DICGC जमाकर्ताओं से सीधे नहीं बरतता है.
  • भारतीय रिज़र्व बैंक अथवा रजिस्टरार को जब निर्देश किया जाता है कि किसी भी बैंक को निरस्त करना है तो वह एक औपचारिक निरसनकर्ता (liquidator) की नियुक्ति करता है जो बैंक को समेटने की प्रक्रिया को देखता है.
  • DICGC अधिनियम के अनुसार, निरसनकर्ता DICGC को अपनी नियुक्ति के तीन महीने के भीतर एक सूची देता है जिसमें सभी बीमित जमाकर्ताओं और उनके बकाये का उल्लेख होता है.
  • DICGC का यह काम है कि वह इस सूची को पाने के दो महीने भीतर सभी बकायों का भुगतान कर दे.

बीमा के अन्दर कौन-से वित्तीय संस्थान आते हैं?

  • DICGC की बीमा सभी वाणिज्यिक और सहकारी बैंकों पर लागू होती है. इस दायरे में कुछ राज्यों/संघीय क्षेत्रों के बैंक नहीं आते हैं, ये हैं – मेघालय, चंडीगढ़, लक्षद्वीप एवं दादर-नगर हवेली.
  • प्राथमिक सहकारिता सोसाइटियाँ (primary cooperative societies) इस बीमा के अन्दर नहीं आती हैं.

किस प्रकार का जमा DICGC के दायरे में नहीं आता है?

  • विदेशी सरकारों का जमा
  • केंद्र राज्य सरकारों का जमा
  • अंतर-बैंक जमा
  • राज्य भूमि विकास बैंक का खाता
  • भारत के बाहर प्राप्त किसी जमा पर देय राशि
  • कोई भी ऐसी राशि जिसपर DICGC ने RBI की अनुमति से छूट दे रखी हो.

यह सुधार क्यों आवश्यक है?

  • बीमा कवर और बीमित राशि में बढ़ोतरी के लिए
  • बीमा कवर देने के लिए निजी प्रतिष्ठानों को अनुमति देने के लिए
  • दावों के निपटारे में देरी रोकने के लिए.